Microphone in front of blurry crowd

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Articles about performance anxiety, aka “stage fright,” usually start the same way: Surveys reveal that Americans fear public speaking more than anything else, including death. Well, I’m pleased to report that public speaking is now just Americans’ #33 fear (according to The Chapman University Survey on American Fears, 2016). This means it falls well behind such favorites as “widespread civil unrest” (#28), “nuclear weapons attack” (#18), and, of course, “reptiles” (#13). However, we Americans continue to fear public speaking more than death (#59), so I suppose there’s still work to do.

If speaking or performing in front of people freaks you out, you’re hardly alone. Stage fright is super common. To quote Mark Twain: “There are two types of speakers: those that are nervous and those that are liars.” Even people who enjoy public speaking, or are elite performers, get nervous. Adele told Rolling Stone, “I’m scared of audiences…. One show in Amsterdam, I was so nervous I escaped out the fire exit. I’ve thrown up a couple of times.” It hasn’t exactly held Adele back, and it doesn’t need to hold you back either.

Presenting in public is a high-value skill

Psychologists and biologists have developed a comprehensive understanding of performance anxiety: both what causes it and how to manage it. That’s a good thing, because the ability to get up in front of people is a skill well worth having, especially as you begin to seek out college and think about your future career. Verbal communication skills are among the top skills that employers look for, according to a 2015 survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers. In a 2015 analysis by LinkedIn, the most sought-after “soft skill” in the workplace was “communication”—and that includes communicating in public to multiple people.

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Stage fright is a thing we can work with

If you have stage fright, you already know how it feels—the racing heart, the stomach butterflies—but here’s what’s actually happening in your body and mind.

Your sympathetic nervous system, which governs the flight-or-fight response, takes over and floods your body with norepinephrine and other hormones (Science, 2011). These hormones trigger a surge of energy and an increase in your breathing and heart rates. Meanwhile, the parts of your brain dealing with rational thought begin to go off-line. This would be a perfectly healthy and useful response if you were facing a saber-toothed tiger. In that situation, you need to default to instinct (e.g., run). Unfortunately, the fear response is less helpful when we’re trying to deliver a piano concerto or speech. Today, our fears are usually not about immediate, serious dangers. But we can perceive danger in being judged negatively or critiqued, and that can trigger the same old responses in us.

We can deal with this. Anxiety about giving public performances is treatable; the main problem is a lack of information. In a 2011 study of 160 music students, half of the respondents admitted that they knew little or nothing about coping strategies for stage fright (International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health). Yet two in three said they were willing to accept support, and all of them wanted to learn more.

Four ways to slay the angst and own the show

Girl reading in front of class

1. Cognitive-behavioral approaches

Cognitive-behavioral (“CB”) techniques are an effective way to reduce performance anxiety, research shows. This therapeutic approach has two steps, experts say. “It entails recognizing and altering the faulty thoughts contributing to the fear,” says Dr. Rachel Koslowski, a clinical psychologist with expertise in anxiety, who practices privately in New York City. Then you can use behavioral techniques to help deal with the anxiety, she says. These three strategies can help:

Graded exposure

Create a “fear hierarchy”: a list of situations that make you anxious, arranged from least to most anxiety-provoking. Then tackle these situations one at a time. For example, read a paragraph from your essay out loud to your sister, which can help lessen the anxiety. Then you step it up a notch and ask a stranger a question at a restaurant. Then you ask a question in class. Then you offer to speak at a club meeting or an extracurricular event. Practice each goal until you’re truly comfortable before moving on.

Challenge automatic thoughts

Dr. Koslowski suggests you “identify the unhelpful thoughts that come to mind when you think about performing in public.” You can do this exercise in your head or in writing. The process looks like this:

  • Identify the thought that accompanies your anxiety; for example, “My presentation is going to go horribly, and I’ll never be good enough.”
  • Challenge that thought with questions like these:
    • What is the evidence that your presentation will go badly?
    • Why should the quality of your presentation determine your worth as a person?
  • Once you have recognized the flaws in your thinking, replace the original thought with a more helpful and less distorted one, such as, “I’ve prepared extensively for this presentation and have no reason to think it will go badly. Plus, it’s just a presentation; even if it did go badly, that wouldn’t impact my life in any major way.”

Reframe anxiety as something positive

Those sensations of pre-performance anxiety you feel in your body? Just reframe them as excitement instead of something sinister. Sped-up heart, fluttery stomach—these occur if you have performance anxiety, sure, but also if you’re about to meet Rihanna or open a college acceptance letter.

Consider also that the physiological changes brought on by stress are, in many ways, specifically designed by evolution to improve performance (Emotion, 2014). Studies have shown that viewing anxiety symptoms as excitement and reframing them as helpful can improve performance in public speaking, musical performance, and sports. It’s easy to do: In one study, participants accomplished it simply by saying “I am excited” out loud before performing (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2014).

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2. Mindfulness-based methods

Mindfulness, a simple mental practice derived from meditation, is also super helpful for coping with stage fright. I’m a mindfulness teacher, so I’m all about using these techniques to handle uncomfortable thoughts and situations. And I have science backing me up. Research has shown that mindfulness can reduce anxiety (Clinical Psychology Review, 2013; Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2010). Performance anxiety is no exception. I feel anxious whenever I present in front of people, and my mindfulness practice is what gets me through it. Read about my favorite two mindful strategies that work:

“Floating noting”
When we label thoughts “thinking,” we don’t buy into their stories. When we label body sensations “feeling,” we can observe them without getting frightened or overwhelmed by them.

The mindful pause
A four-step process that takes 30 seconds.

3. Practical prep strategies
Boy looking over city skyline

Best way to conquer stage fright? “Know what you’re talking about,” says Dr. Mike Mescon, dean emeritus at Georgia State University. When it comes to public speaking, you can practice CB and mindfulness strategies until your brains leak out your ears, but there’s no substitute for preparation and understanding what makes a great presentation. I say that as someone who speaks in front of large audiences pretty often.

My best practical strategies for handling public performances

  • Practice Rehearse more than you think you need to. You want to be so comfortable with the material that it’s almost boring for you. Speak up and slow down: You’re talking quieter and faster than you think.
  • Rehearse in front of a friend They’ll spot opportunities for improvement that you can’t on your own. Video yourself so you can rehearse in front of you, too.
  • Embrace the pause It gives you time to collect your thoughts, sounds better than “um,” and adds dynamism to a presentation. As 19th-century English poet and essayist Martin Farquhar Tupper said, “Well-timed silence hath more eloquence than speech.”
  • If you’re using slides, keep the text to a minimum People can’t read and listen at the same time. I use almost no text and keep my slides largely image-based. That said, images can be more powerful than words.
  • If you want to have a written reference on hand, use note cards with bullet points Reading from a script sounds stilted; bullet points can jog your memory while letting you express yourself in a natural-sounding way.
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4. A fearless alter ego

Here’s a solution that comes straight from celebrity performers: Create an alter ego. Beyoncé’s tough, fearless stage persona, “Sasha Fierce,” inspired both Adele and actor/singer Hayden Panettiere to create alter egos of their own as a way to combat anxiety related to performing. Adele’s is called “Sasha Carter” (a fusion of Sasha Fierce and June Carter), while Hayden’s remains a mystery. Hayden, if you’re reading this, I suggest “Acty McSingFace.”

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Article sources


Rachel Koslowski, PsyD, licensed clinical psychologist, New York City.

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King, C. R. (2012, December 18). Hayden Panettiere overcomes stage fright as singer. SFGate. Retrieved from http://www.sfgate.com/tv/article/Hayden-Panettiere-overcomes-stage-fright-as-singer-4129194.php

Moore, L. J., Vine, S. J., Wilson, M. R., & Freeman, P. (2015). Reappraising threat: How to optimize performance under pressure. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 37(3), 339–343.

National Association of Colleges and Employers. (2015, November 18). Job outlook 2016: The attributes employers want to see on new college graduates’ resumes. Retrieved from http://www.naceweb.org/s11182015/employers-look-for-in-new-hires.aspx

Studer, R., Gomez, P., Hildebrandt, H., Arial, M., & Danuser, B. (2011). Stage fright: Its experience as a problem and coping with it. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 84(7), 761–771.

Touré. (2011, April 28). Adele opens up about her inspirations, looks and stage fright. Rolling Stone. Retrieved from http://www.rollingstone.com/music/news/adele-opens-up-about-her-inspirations-looks-and-stage-fright-20120210?page=3